Measures for Practicing Biosecurity in Poultry Farming

Biosecurity involves implementing comprehensive and synchronized technical and management measures to minimize the risk of infection and disease spread among poultry and ensure their health and disease-free status.

Objectives of Biosecurity Practices in Poultry Farming

  1. Prevent the entry of pathogens from outside the farm.
  2. Prevent the spread of pathogens between areas within the farm.
  3. Ensure that poultry within the farm remains disease-free.
  4. Prevent the spread of pathogens from inside the farm (if any) to the outside.

Basic Principles

  • Poultry must be cared for and raised in good conditions with a good environment and always protected.
  • All movements in and out of the farm and between areas within the farm must be controlled to ensure the poultry do not get sick.

Requirements for Building Poultry Farms

Location of the Farm
  • Farms should be built in areas away from residential areas, hospitals, schools, markets, and traffic roads, at least 500 meters away.
  • Avoid building farms near rivers, streams, canals, natural lakes, areas with many wild animals or birds, and places where other livestock and poultry are grazed.
  • Ensure a constant supply of clean and safe water.
Layout of the Farm
  • The farm should be arranged as follows: boundary fence - buffer zone - inner fence - poultry area - breeding/feed/material/tool/laboratory - rows of coops.
  • The farm gate (on the boundary) Should have a pressure water pump and hose system for washing vehicles, followed by a disinfectant pit for boots and wheels and a changing room (with a shower and disinfectant pits).
  • Each breeding area and each row of coops should have a water hose for washing boots and a disinfectant pit.
  • The farm should have a separate administrative area located in the buffer zone.
  • Separate storage should be arranged for different groups:
    • Feed and feed ingredients.
    • Breeding tools.
    • Hazardous disinfectant chemicals.
  • Each row of coops should have a wastewater drainage trench, and at the end of each area or row of coops, there should be a gas pit (for necessary treatment) before discharging to the common farm drainage system.
  • There should be a quarantine area for newly imported poultry.
  • There should be an area for handling and disposing of sick or dead poultry.
  • There should be an area for handling manure, waste, and wastewater.

Biosecurity Practices in Poultry Farming

  • Implement a closed farming system for each farm: Under challenging cases, apply this system for each row of coops. For breeding farms, there should be separate areas for different age groups. Do not mix flocks, which creates age, immunity, and epidemiological inconsistencies.
  • Disease prevention and control should be implemented by area within the farm: All people and vehicles entering each row of coops must pass through a disinfectant pit at the entrance. Wash boots and wheels immediately upon leaving the row of coops and then pass through the disinfectant pit at the entrance. Use breeding and sanitation tools exclusively for each row of coops. Wash and dry after use.
  • Use disease-free breeding stock: Import poultry from disease-free breeding facilities for important infectious diseases such as Influenza, Gumboro, Marek, etc.
  • Quarantine newly imported poultry: In case of multiple flocks or ages in one farm, newly imported flocks must be quarantined for at least the first two weeks or until the breeder is sure the poultry is healthy. Test for important diseases before importing to ensure they do not infect the current flock.
  • Disease prevention with vaccines: Depending on the epidemiology and characteristics of each farm, different vaccination programs can be implemented.
  • Periodically test and monitor the circulation of pathogens. Clean, disinfect, and sterilize coops during rearing periods. Clean and sweep daily for rows of coops, surrounding areas, and paths.
  • Immediately after each rearing period, sweep, wash, disinfect coops, surrounding areas, auxiliary areas, paths, buffer zones, wastewater drainage systems, etc. Leave the coop empty for at least one week before introducing a new flock.
  • Waste treatment:
    • Treat with a biogas system.
    • Treat with lime: Calculate the volume of waste in the tank, then add quicklime or lime powder to the tank to achieve a 10% concentration.

Handling and Disposing of Sick and Dead Poultry

  • Clear guidelines for handling sick and dead animals. There must be a separate area for handling ill poultry. Immediately move sick poultry to the quarantine area for care and treatment. Only return them to the coop when fully recovered. If a necropsy is performed on sick poultry, conduct it in designated areas and send samples for testing to determine the cause of the disease. Dispose of ill and dead poultry by burial or incineration according to veterinary guidelines.

Controlling Movements within and into the Farm

  • Vehicles entering the farm must be cleaned with high-pressure water and then pass through a disinfectant pit.
  • Arrange workers to work fixedly in each coop or area, prohibiting movement to other areas. Workers who work in multiple coops must have different sets of clothes and boots for each coop. Use different colors of protective clothing for each coop to avoid confusion and easy control and management.
  • People entering the farm must follow a sanitation process: Bathing, disinfection, changing into protective clothing, moving within the farm as guided by management, and not moving around the farm without permission.

Preventing Animal Intrusion

  • The boundary fence outside the buffer zone must be solid and thick enough to prevent the intrusion of livestock, poultry, and wild animals. Coops must have walls/screens to prevent the intrusion of rodents and wild birds.

Summary of Biosecurity Practices

Closed Farming System: A closed farming system ensures that each farm or coop operates independently, preventing the spread of disease within the farm. This includes strict movement control, separate equipment for each coop, and proper quarantine procedures for new poultry.

Health Monitoring and Vaccination: Regular health checks and vaccination programs tailored to the farm’s needs help prevent disease outbreaks. Periodic testing and monitoring of pathogens ensure early detection and response to potential threats.

Sanitation and Disinfection: Daily cleaning and disinfection of coops and surrounding areas help maintain a hygienic environment. After each rearing period, thorough cleaning and disinfection are required, followed by an empty period to reduce pathogen load.

Waste Management: Proper waste management systems, such as biogas or lime treatment, help mitigate the spread of disease through waste products. Effective disposal of sick and dead poultry through burial or incineration per veterinary guidelines is crucial.

Movement Control: Strict control of movement within the farm, including cleaning and disinfection of vehicles and personnel, helps prevent the introduction and spread of disease. Workers should use designated protective clothing for different areas to avoid cross-contamination.

Animal Intrusion Prevention: Robust fencing and structural measures prevent the intrusion of wild animals and rodents, which can be vectors for disease.

Practical Implementation

To implement these biosecurity measures practically, farms should develop detailed standard operating procedures (SOPs) tailored to their specific circumstances. Training and regular audits can ensure compliance and effectiveness of these measures.


Implementing robust biosecurity practices is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of poultry farms. By preventing disease introduction and spread, farms can ensure the well-being of their poultry, reduce economic losses, and contribute to public health by minimizing the risk of zoonotic disease transmission.